GLOSSARY

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Apnea (Sleep Apnea) : Scientifically known as Or rather Obstructive Sleep Apnea is the cessation of breathing for at least 10 seconds in adults or the equivalent of two breaths in children. This period is the established duration to identify and calculate the number of apneas in a sleep report. (direct link)

Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) : The number of apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep. (direct link)

Asthma : A lung disease characterized by the narrowing of the airways. Asthma results from a complex interaction between various factors (allergies, cigarette smoke, etc.). The symptoms of asthma include: a dry cough, night arousals, shortness of breath, tightness in the chest, or wheezing. (direct link)

Atony : A loss of muscle tone. It indicates the onset of REM sleep or the cataplexy observed in narcolepsy. (direct link)

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Bruxism : An oral activity characterized by grinding of the teeth or clenching of the jaw during sleep usually associated with sleep arousals. This condition often leads to jaw pain, tooth/headaches, mouth and facial pain, and limited jaw movement. (direct link)

Cheyne-Stokes respiration : Periodic breathing characterized by apneas and/or hypopneas alternating with prolonged hyperpneas and during which ventilation waxes and wanes in a crescendo-decrescendo pattern. It is often present with central sleep apnea. (direct link)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) : A group of lung diseases that cause an obstruction of airflow to the lungs. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the most common forms of COPD. The leading cause of COPD is smoking. Other risk factors for COPD are exposure to secondhand smoke, male gender, and working or living in a polluted environment. Symptoms included shortness of breath (dyspnea) persisting for months to years, wheezing and cough. (direct link)

Confusional arousal : A parasomnia that takes place in the early part of the night, during non-REM sleep. Confusional arousal includes disorientation, moaning, crying or moving about. (direct link)

Diabetes : A pathological condition related to pancreatic failure causing hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) (direct link)

Electrode : A small metal cup applied to the scalp or another part of the body to record electrical activity of the brain (EEG), muscles (EMG), cardiac (ECG) and the eye movement EOG). (direct link)

Excessive Daytime Sleepiness : An excess of uncontrolled sleep, occurring at inappropriate times. EDS is a major symptom of sleep apneas, UARS and narcolepsy. (direct link)

Hypersomnia : A group of disorders in which the primary complaint is excessive daytime sleepiness. (direct link)

Hypnogram : A graphic representation of the sequence of the various stages of sleep (non-REM and REM). (direct link)

Hypopnea : A significant decrease in breathing during sleep that can be associated with hypoxemia or microarousals. Hypopnea is a respiratory disorder observed in sleep-related breathing disorders. (direct link)

Hypoxemia : A reduction in the concentration of oxygen transported in the blood by hemoglobin. It is observed in patients with sleep-related breathing disorders and certain lung diseases. (direct link)

Insomnia : The repeated inability to sleep a sufficient number of hours, despite an adequate time and opportunity for sleep. Insomnia is characterized by a difficulty falling asleep with frequent arousals or waking very early in the morning. (Partner: Insomnia Clinic Montreal) (direct link)

Microarousal : A brief awakening (3-14 seconds) characterized by abrupt changes in EEG frequency (alpha-beta or delta waves) during sleep. Microarousals often go undetected and deteriorate the quality of sleep. (direct link)

MSLT - Multiple Sleep Latency Test : An objective measure of manifest sleep tendency consisting of four or five naps at regular intervals during the day. It usually measures how long it takes to fall asleep and which stages of sleep are entered. Sleep-onset REM periods (SOREMPs) support a diagnosis of narcolepsy. (direct link)

MWT - Maintenance of Wakefulness Test : A test in which subjects are instructed to stay awake in a semi-reclined position in a dark room. The amount of time taken to fall asleep is considered an indication of the ability to stay awake. (direct link)

Narcolepsy : A neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness. Cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations may also appear. (direct link)

Nightmare : A parasomnia that occurs at the end of the night during REM sleep. Nightmares are dreams with negative content, often accompanied by anxiety or sadness. (direct link)

Oral appliance : An oral device used to move the lower jaw forward and treat sleep apnea. By increasing the space at the bottom of the throat, it prevents breathing disorders and improves sleep quality. (direct link)

OSAS - Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome : A breathing disorder characterized by partial (hypopnea) or complete (apnea) upper airway occlusions, causing the repetitive occurrence of apnea‑hypopneas (at least 10 seconds) and episodes of hypoxemia or microarousals. It is defined by the AHI. (direct link)

Oxygen : An element essential to life, constituting 21% of ambient air. Oxygen crosses the lungs to saturate the hemoglobin in the blood, which then transports it to all parts of the body. (direct link)

Oxygen concentrator : A device that concentrates the oxygen in higher concentrations than the ambient air to purify the oxygen delivered to the patient. (direct link)

Oxygen therapy : The therapeutic use of oxygen at a higher concentration than that of ambient air (21%) to treat pulmonary diseases. (direct link)

Parasmonias : Undesirable events or experiences that occur after you fall asleep, while you sleep or when you are waking up. The most commons parasomnias are confusional arousals, sleepwalking, sleep terrors, nightmares and REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). (direct link)

Periodic limb movements : Periodic, involuntary and rhythmic leg or arm movements while you sleep or are awake. Typical movements include extending the big toe or flexing the foot and sometimes even, the knee or hip. Movements last anywhere from half a second to five seconds and are detected by a PSG. (direct link)

Polysomnography : The standard test used to quantify and qualify sleep disorders. The PSG monitors brain activities (EEG), muscle activities (EMG), eye movements (EOG), cardiac rhythm (ECG) and breathing or respiratory function during sleep. (direct link)

Positive airway pressure machine (CPAP, APAP, BiPAP, ASV) : A portable ventilatory machine that delivers a controlled amount of pressurized air. The system splints the upper airway (pharynx), thus preventing the occurrence of disordered breathing events (apneas, hypopneas). It is the most effective treatment for eliminating or reducing sleep apneas. (direct link)

REM sleep behavior disorder : A parasomnia in adults that occurs at the end of the night, during REM sleep. It is characterized by vivid dreams, leading the person dreaming “to act out the dreams” and putting the bed partner at risk of serious injuries. (direct link)

Respiratory Effort Related Arousal : A breathing disorder characterized by the partial closing of the upper airways, a clear drop in inspiratory airflow, increasing respiratory effort (at least 10 seconds) and ending in a microarousal (without hypoxemia). An RERA does not meet criteria for an apnea or hypopnea. (direct link)

Restless Legs Syndrome : A tingling or prickling sensation (and not pain or cramps) in the legs and sometimes the arms, at sleep onset or during sleep. This syndrome is diagnosed during a clinical interview. (direct link)

Sleep : An active physiological state characterized by a loss of consciousness and a variety of changes in brain waves (alpha, beta, theta, delta), muscle activity (muscle tone, atony), hormone secretion, metabolic rates and regulation of body temperature. (direct link)

Sleep Apnea : Scientifically known as Or rather Obstructive Sleep Apnea is the cessation of breathing for at least 10 seconds in adults or the equivalent of two breaths in children. This period is the established duration to identify and calculate the number of apneas in a sleep report. (direct link)

Sleep Hygiene : A set of guidelines for improving sleep that includes regular bed and awake times, limiting use of the bed to sleep and sex, and avoiding behaviour and substances that disrupt sleep such as exercise or caffeine late at night. (direct link)

Sleep related breathing disorders : Breathing disorders, including hypopneas, apneas, RERA, UARS and hypoventilation. (direct link)

Sleep terrors : A parasomnia that occurs during an arousal at the beginning of the night or during deep sleep (non-REM sleep, Stage 3). It is characterized by crying, screaming, autonomic nervous system phenomena (tachycardia, tachypnea, flushing of the skin, diaphoresis, increased muscle tone, behavioural manifestations) and intense fear. (direct link)

Sleepwalking : A parasomnia that occurs at the beginning of the night, during an arousal from deep sleep (non-REM sleep). This sleep disorder is characterized by a series of complex motor behaviours, an altered state of consciousness and impaired judgment. (direct link)

Snoring : A sound a sleeping person may make during sleep that typically occurs during inspiration. It is caused by a vibration of the respiratory tissues (soft palate, base of the tongue, etc.). (direct link)

UARS - Upper airway resistance syndrome : A clinical syndrome whose major symptom is excessive daytime sleepiness resulting from RERA. (direct link)

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